COMPONENTS FOUND IN ARTICHOKE
The chemical components of artichoke leaves had been studies extensively and have been found to be a rich source of polyphenolic compounds.
Major phenolic compounds of artichoke leaf extract are following;
- Chlorgenic acid
Besides the major phenolic compounds, artichoke leaf extract contains a low content of fat and high levels of minerals such as potassium, sodium, phosphorus, vitamin C as well as fiber.
In traditional medicine and from many researches in the twenties century, artichoke leaves have showed several biological activities which may probably provide the health benefits in many ways. Following are some effects that have been researched and reported.
1. Hepatoprotective effects1,2:
Liver is a crucial organ that filters the blood from gastro-intestinal tract to the whole body. It also detoxifies chemicals and metabolized drugs. As doing so, the liver secretes bile that ends up back in the intestines. The liver also makes proteins important for blood clotting and other function.
Many studies have showed and supported the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of artichoke leaf extract. Its Biological activities of major compounds on hepatoprotective effects are to
- Help to remove dangerous toxins and produce bile for fat digestion
- Averted the process of lipid peroxidation from occurring in the cell membranes of the tissues of the liver, making the artichoke an ideal weapon in the arsenal to help to obtain optimal liver function.
- Cell protective effective when studying rat liver cells exposed to t-BHP (tertiary butylhydroperoxide), found that artichoke leaf extract significantly prevented oxidative damage to hepatocyte membranes.
- Improve liver function
- Antioxidant activity1: Artichoke, an edible vegetable, is a good source of natural antioxidants such as vitamin C, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavones.
- Showed significant decrease of plasma MDA (Plasma malondialdehyde) levels (p<0.01) as compared to the OX STRESS animals.
- A significant impact on 8-OHdG (urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), and GSH levels (erythrocyte reduced glutathione) and also significantly decreased plasma FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) values and protein oxidation in plasma and erythrocytes.
- Cholesterol Lowering Effects1: The constituent luteolin was found to play a crucial role in the inhibiting the cholesterol synthesis.
- Antiatherogenic actions (preventing the formation of fatty plaques in the arteries) and inhibition the synthesis of cholesterol, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in treated group with artichoke leaf extract.
- Blocked the stimulation of cholesterol biosynthesis by insulin
- Artichoke is a traditional herbal medicinal product for the symptomatic relief of digestive disorders such as dyspepsia with a sensation of fullness, bloating and flatulence.
- The product is a traditional herbal medicinal product for use in the specified indication exclusively based upon long-standing use.
- Others actions:
- According to various studies the artichoke flower heads have a high content of vitamin C (10 mg / 100 g fresh weight) and minerals (K 360 mg / 100 g fresh weight; Ca 50 mg/100 g fresh weight). Leaves and heads of artichoke have been found to be rich in polyphenols, fiber and minerals.4
- Antimicrobial activities.1
- Hypocholesterolemic effect and prevention of cardiovascular diseases.1
- Antiobesity effect.5
1Ben Salem M, Affes H, Ksouda K, Dhouibi R, Sahnoun Z, Hammami S, etal. Pharmacological Studies of Artichoke Leaf Extract and Their Health Benefits. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2015 Dec;70(4):441-53. doi: 10.1007/s11130-015-0503-8.
2Hoffman M. Picture of the Liver; Human Anatomy, webmd.com.
3Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC). European Union herbal monograph on Cynara cardunculus L. (syn. Cynara scolymus L.), folium. 2018.
4Zakynthinos G and Varzakas T. Mikromani’s Artichoke (Cynara Cardunculus Var. Scolymus) – A Mediterranean Nutraceutical. Curr. Res. Nutr Food Sci Jour. 2016:4(1);16-18.
5Mahboubi M. Cynara scolymus (artichoke) and its efficacy in management of obesity. Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University 56. 2018:115–120.